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« on: April 19, 2012, 10:22:47 PM »
roopeshkrishna
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        Good evening all Respected Modelling Friends.. even from the earliset stages we were discussing ,looking and sharing lots of ideas for ESCs for brushed motors.. especially with reverse function, is a must in Boat,Ship and land based models like Cars,trucks, Race vehicles, Hover crafts etc.. some recent postings reminds us, the unavailability of a simple ESC set up.. here i am adding all of my proven circuits one by one, as we starts from ever simplest methods to a highly complicated methods using H bridges and micro controllers.. all these are for brushed motors..
         All we know, this is a new ERA of modelmaking, all with ample of goodies all around us, that the goodies once considered only for rich in money.. still we lack something.. especially while doing our own models and projects..and still the goodies are some expensive when compared to a average modeller..secondly, if we can make all needed stuffs our own, the satisfaction and sheer pleasure will be so great and much inspiring..one of the other reason of self making is the flexibility of our own stuffs.. we can make our needed stuffs up to our specifications.. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #1 on: April 19, 2012, 10:34:18 PM »
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       Many of us consideres the Brushless motors are the final word in model making.. is that true..?  never.. Brushless motors are far superior to a Brushed motor, is sure, but still Brushed motors have an important role to play , not only in modelling segments, but also in day today life.. in my expiriments Brushed motors shows a good flexibility and applicability in Robotics, and all segments of model making.. it also starts wthout any jerks, and delivers a great torque in low RPMs.. to achieve this in a Brushless motor we have to use a good programmed ESC.. so, still brushed motors are so important even now.. and yes, in aero models, Brushless motors are the best bet, while in land based mnodels, like Boats,Ships and Cars Brushed motors plays a nice role,.. even after 4 years of constant running in daily basis, many of my crafts are still working perfectly, without any head aches.. the only maintenance work was replacing the brushes once.. so, we know all motors are just like Cows, that it gives us ample of utility.. but we must take care of them.. if so, the Brushed motors will gives us years of trouble free services..another one excellence of a brushed motor is the easy of reworking.. we can rework on any brushed motors according to our needs.. easily..
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« Reply #2 on: April 19, 2012, 10:44:01 PM »
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      If we convert a Brushed motor in to a 4 brushed one.. the performance will be far beyond explanations.. so, please hold all brushed motors in hand.. do not throw it all away..  all you will understand the values of a Brushed motor.. so, the below circuits and set ups are mainly intended for Boats, Ships, Cars, Race vehicles, Hover crafts etc.. but we can use it in any place, any applications from a robot to a rail road model, as inside the craft, or in outside, to power the rail tracks, of a rail road model, and will works from 6 volts to 24 volts nicely.. and can flex to any extent according to our needs..here i am sharing the proven circuits, but all you can add any additions for the purpose..
     So, at beginning we must start with ever simplest possible method, yes, while keeping an eye on beginners and Excellent modellers who are not advanced in electronics.. in first methods, we are using only some few components, means not electronic components but as whole.. anyone can make this one, and can Rcyit.. no complications.. can make and add with Printed Circuit Boards, or without PCB, without solderings.. and so easy.. but effective.. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #3 on: April 19, 2012, 10:46:57 PM »
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    Now we must go for a thinking, about needed materials, and how can we reverse a Brushed motor without a complicated Electronic circuits..
     
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« Reply #4 on: April 19, 2012, 11:43:05 PM »
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         sorry.. lost powersupply..
         It is not much need to expain to rverse a Dc Brushed motor..all we know this can be done by changing the two wires on motor, the wires coming from battery.. so, yes it is very easy to alter the direction of a DC Brushed motor..
and, in a Brushless DC motor, we can reverse it easily, by changing the two end wires in to opposite polarity..
         Now, when we consideres an ESC to a particular craft, we have two option to adopt or to fix an ESC on same craft.. first one is yes, that can make the entire ESC module on a common PCB, or on a plastc card, or on a piece of Sun mica,or even on a piece of card board.. in this case, the total size of the ESC will affect the installation and space within the craft.. means, the ESC will be a particular size, because of the size of the board that we use to make the ESC unit..
         Second method is, very clever, that we can fix all needed components in convenient places, especially, more clearly, we can fix the Power transistor, just under the nose of a boat, and can add a aluminum heat sink on it, to cool it, and can add even a submerged aluminum fin, just under the nose (BOW), or belly, so the main component will be in a safe place, and concealed within the hull.. so, just adding all components in convenient places, we can avoid any messup with wires and over crowding of components.. but in this case, we must use some extra thick wires to avoid any current losses..
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« Reply #5 on: April 19, 2012, 11:59:24 PM »
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    As a beginning, we can start from a simple  and light motor controller set up, ideas all from around us.. light DC motors employs in various places.. just like Robots, toys , and tiny gearboxes..and many.. so, an easiest method , to control a tiny Dc motor is surely a standard servo itself..  by doing some adjustments inside a standard servo, we can simply use a standard servo to propel a Boat, Car, robot that uses a tiny DC brushed motor.. but still a good standard servo is expensive..
    That is why, we can make a simple low wattage ESC for tiny motors like EP 60, to EP 90 and many toy motors, many taperecorder motors.. now many expert modellers laugh at me.. because of expalining about tiny motors and tape motors.. but it is a true, that a tiny 3 volt toy motor can propel a moderately sized boat, at 3 volts..without heating up.. with an appropriate gear box, and with an appropriate hand made prop will do the job nicely.. we will make a boat with a toy motor and a gear box from a toy later..  and tape recorder motors are too good to make slow running War ships, Cargo ships, and Fishing trawler like models.. many good quality tape recorder and VCR motors are brushed with Gold graphites.. lasts for years.. and we can find many RS series motors on commercially available robotic gear boxes..all are good.. so, by keeping beginners in mind, we can start with a simple motor controller set up at first.. we can reverse the direction of the motor , with a simple switch operated by a micro servo, at this easy stage.. as we advances we can go for more compact and complicated Elecronic circuits..

        so modellers.. we starts with simple ESC at first.. this circuit works from 4.8 volts, nicely, and can add to 12 volts.. but retain this for 7.2 volts maximum as this one is for tiny and less current consuming motors.. rated Amperage will be within 4 to 5 amps max..
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« Reply #6 on: April 20, 2012, 09:41:08 AM »
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           Good morning  Modellers.. sorry i lost server at night.. follows..
Can anyone make these set ups own..? yes, that, if you are a person, who can connect a receiver and ESC along with a battery pack on your exscisting craft, or if you are one that who can light up a simple torch bulb with two pieces of wire and with a dry cell.. then anyone can.. so, do not worry.. i am adding the steps from lowest point so even a simpler beginner can go through..

materials needed.. as a first step, we must need some inexpensive components for us.. are follows..

MJE 3055 power transistor..X 1
SL 100 general purpose transistor.. X 1
2200 MF 25 Volts electrolytic capacitor X 1
47 K or 100 Kilo Ohms sliding potentio meter  X 1 ( MUST BE WITHIN 1 INCH or 1.5 INCH MAXIMUM SLIDE LENGTH).
red L E D X 1
green L E D X 1
heat sink for MJE 3055 X 1
some good quality wires ( FLAT RIBBON CABLE CAPABLE OF 10 Amps AS BEST),X 1/2 meter..
in line fuse holder and in line fuse ( MUST BE DC FUSE AND IN TO 12 VOLTS 5 AMPS HERE)  X 1.. can buy from car acssesory shops..
common P C B, X 1 ( OR CAN ASSEMBLED ON A CARD BOARD)..

all these costs you about less than 50 Rs/-

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« Reply #7 on: April 20, 2012, 09:52:46 AM »
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as a basic need of RCying, we must need a perfectly working radio set.. so, keep the radio set near, and make sure you have three micro servos with you.. at first, we can make an arrangement, that we can increase the throttle, with the throttle stic, while, the craft goes in reverse when the throttle stic pulled in extreme lower end.. its easy to do..

so before going in to practical, we can go for a good component reference at first.. this helps beginners a lots.. here we discus only about the pins and its uses of used devices, and not in to technical complications, formulas, fundas, and theories.. as here we do not need anything like that.. if follow simple steps, and if the connections are true, it will work..
so, keep your radio with you along with three micro servos..

now can check the main power transistor used here, the transistor used here is , to control the motor.. we using the transistor with a second one, to make a darlington pair.. for more versatility.. leave all theories behind.. here we have to control our motor once.. thats all..so, it is a must to know about the component well in once.. experts may laugh at me, but please consider beginners and modellers who are not in to deep electronics once..
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« Reply #8 on: April 20, 2012, 01:37:48 PM »
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     Before going for a variable spped control for Dc Brushed motors, we must examine some possibilities to control the motor or motors without any electronic circuits, and as on and off in both directions.. this kind of set ups helps us to energize a motor in either directions with the control stick of the TX.. so can operate a robotic arm, as up and down, or as grab and release, or as FWD and REV in a pre adjusted speed.. this will be useful in many applications..  this kind of ON/ OFF in both directions also helps to make light Boats, Ships, hover crafts and a lots.. so, with a 4 channel radio we can simply control 4 motors in both directions.. and all motors will be OFF when the stick reaches at centre.. speed can vary by adjusting the battery voltage.. so, as an easy method we can think about the simple set up..

    for achieving this control we need only two simple switches.. as you see in the photograph.. the switch have three terminals, as C, NO and NC..  C means COMMON, is main point of contact, while NO means Normally Open, and NC means Normally closed.. so, when we examine, the Common point will be in contact with NC point.. when switch in off.. means when not as depressed.. you can see the simple steel lever at the top of the switch, to make it On or Off.. this switch can handle up to 6 Amps in 24 Volts DC.. costs about 10 Rs/- for one.. for heavier applications we can adopt the same assembly proses, but with a heavy duty switch and with a standard servo..

    We must collect two identical switches for this idea..

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« Reply #9 on: April 20, 2012, 01:43:01 PM »
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now you can see the arrangement of switches in a particular way.. when the stick of TX goes to one extreme, the servo arm will depress the lever of one switch, turning it ON.. then when the stick of TX reaches at centre, the servo arm stands between both switches.. keeps both are in OFF position.. then when the stic goes to the other end, the servo arm, depress the next switch.. turning it on.. so, we can simply attain motor On /Off with these switches.. how can we wire the terminals..?  here you can see only two wires.. leave it.. will add how to wire.. by step by step.. cond:

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« Reply #10 on: April 20, 2012, 04:56:11 PM »
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       Now please, carefully listen the mounting lay out of switches between the servo arm once.. you can use any type of switch, with Single Pole Double Throw.. but make sure, that the switch is in a shape, that can be fixed in such a way, that a servo arm van depress and release it.. here we can see 3 terminals on each swithces..
      As i mentioned earlier, we can see the C, NO, NC points once again.. see once again, that the way i fixed the switches.. the C contacts are facing each other.. and all yes..

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« Reply #11 on: April 20, 2012, 05:04:26 PM »
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      Its time for a simple check out.. this step is not essntial, but showing you that the confguration of switches.. set Multimeter in Continueity Range.. in this point, a buzzer will sounds from meter, when two probs shorted.. now take two probes of  meter, and place one on common point (C), and one on Normally Closed point.. (NC), make sure the servo arm is at centre, in this time meter will emit the buzzer noise, while panel show a ----.. means the switch is connected.. from C to NC..points..

      Change the prob, from NC point to NO point, and repeat the test.. in this time meter shows nothing and no sounds.. then keeping both probs in same terminals, depress the switch once.. and can see the meter satrts to sounds and reading will apper as 0.. so, can make sure the polarity of switches..
Once again: this step is not essential.. but can go if you want to check the C, NO, NC contacts are working..

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« Reply #12 on: April 20, 2012, 05:11:59 PM »
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    Just start wiring.. take two pieces of good wires that holds about 8 to 10 Amps cont: flexible but good quality wires a must... these wires can purchased from Car shops as in Meters in length..
you can use any colour, but strictly follow a colour code, for motor wire and battery wire.. on every craft and on every work.. this avoids future confusions, while in a service procedure.. here i am following Yello+ Black for motor wires.. and you must follow RED wire for Battery + and Black wire for Battery -  .. if not, a confusion will occur while later works, and can a reverse application of battery that can damage or destroy your carft or set up..
    Here, i added Yellow and Black wire on each C points of each switches..
    After that wiring attach a second black wire, for battery as shown, on NC point..

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« Reply #13 on: April 20, 2012, 05:15:24 PM »
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   Solder a second piece of wire on the same terminal that we soldered the Black battery wire..
Solder the second tip of the same wire on the NC point of the next switch.. as shown..

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« Reply #14 on: April 20, 2012, 06:15:30 PM »
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solder a Red wire on the NO contact of the switch as shown..
add a second little wire to the same terminal as shown..

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« Reply #15 on: April 20, 2012, 06:18:15 PM »
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now solder the second wire to the second NO terminal..now the arrangement is ready.. test time..

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« Reply #16 on: April 20, 2012, 06:22:58 PM »
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      Now connecct the Yellow and Black wire to the desired motor..
And connect the RED and Black wire to the Battery.. if we want to change the direction of the motor in a desired stick position, please change the terminals of Yellow and Black wire on motor,

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« Reply #17 on: April 20, 2012, 06:26:20 PM »
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  Entire arrangemets are ready.. now test time.. before going for a video, we can examine once what is happening here..

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« Reply #18 on: April 20, 2012, 06:35:06 PM »
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  If we examine the set up once, we find that, when the servo arm is in centre, both switches will be connected between the Common point and Normally Closed point.. in this condition, the both motor terminal will get same - ( Negative ) voltage through the switches.. because, both NC points are connected to the - supply of battery.. but, when any of the switch depressed by the servo arm, the NO contact will connected to the Common point of the pressed switch.. so, we are already soldered the + supply of battery to each NO terminals of the both switches.. instantly, one pole of the motor get the + supply from battery.. so, motor will start to run in one direction.. when the servo arm goes at centre again, the switch closes again with NC contact, leaving both motor terminals in to - supply.. this same thing happens when the second switch depresses.. as the second pole of the motor gets the + supply it runs opposite of the first direction.. so, with stick of TX can control motor for both directions..

   From above notes we feel some thing big thing.. but you can follow procedures carefully and will take about 20 minutes to complete this set up.. when you completed you will realize how simple it all..

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« Reply #19 on: April 20, 2012, 06:45:20 PM »
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     Now we got a simple but effective arrangement to drive a DC brushed motor in to both direction with our radio set.. we can use heavy duty switches while using heavy duty motors.. these similar switches can buy from any Electrical shops who deals the needed materials of washing machines and refrigerators..

 the test video follows.. after that we will make a simple ESC to drive small Dc Brushed motors.. with reverse.. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #20 on: April 21, 2012, 11:03:16 AM »
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sir your all related ideas still helping us alot.we are still using all circuits. Hats Off
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« Reply #21 on: April 21, 2012, 11:58:40 AM »
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Gokul, this year we will make more useful stuffs for the Academy..  Salute
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« Reply #22 on: April 21, 2012, 02:32:28 PM »
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here i am adding the test video of the first set up.. all we can see its too simple and efective.. with this simple se up of motor control, we can simply operate a motor in any Amps rated, in a pre set speed.. for an example, we can switch and control a robotic arm, one is designed to run at 20 RPM at 3 volts.. so can up or down the arm of a robot with ease.. this also can be used to control a motor of a boat, ship, car or anything and even a real fan, that if we used a big switch and insulations.. can also switch on the lights and winches in either direction.. here is how it works..  Thumbs Up

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« Reply #23 on: April 21, 2012, 02:58:02 PM »
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Great piece of work Sirji. Smiley
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« Reply #24 on: April 21, 2012, 04:10:42 PM »
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thank you Punty.. its too useful but simple..

Modellers, now we saw that, how to control a DC Brushed motor in either directions with our radio, and with switches.. now we can go for to make a motor controller with variable speed.. in an easy way that anyone can do.. means to make and adopt this useful thing to your craft, you do not become as an Electronics Engineer, or an Electronic technician..no theories.. no formulas.. just fix it and RCyit.. all with a reverse function..  Thumbs Up
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« Reply #25 on: April 21, 2012, 09:39:40 PM »
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       Respected Modellers..now we are going to make a simple but 100% effective speed controller for small motors that drops current up to 4 Amps max.. means the stall current ( stall current means, the maximum current flows through the total motor circuit when a running motor stopped by an external force, for example, imagine, that the propeller of your boat strnding suddenly with a fishing net, and stops instantly, because of the net, but the power to the motor still ON..) must be 4 Amps for safety.. with this we can control all motors like EP 60 to EP 120, Pr 40 to Pr 80, SS 40 to SS 80 and loats of toy motors , tape recorder motors ( speed controller removed), VCR motors and a lots.. you can also convert your toy car or boat with this novel stuff, by using a hobby radio.. along with reversing.. we can also add FWD and REV lights that goes on automatically..all without any complicated or tough Lelectronic circuits.. "CAN ANYONE MAKE THIS ONE..?"   yes sure, i told you once earlier, if you are a modeller, who can connect a receiver to your craft for RCying, or you are one, that can light up a torch bulb with a dry cell with two pieces of wire.. then "YOU CAN MAKE AND RCYIT..." its sure.. here, we are not using any formulas ,fundas, theories etc.. all easy.. and handy..
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« Reply #26 on: April 21, 2012, 09:48:58 PM »
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         Now, we are taking a look on using components once.. here you can see a power transistor,named as MJE 3055, and can use any related substitute like MJE 13005 and similar.. this transistor costs about 5 to 10 Rs/- and is very reliable one.. while looking in to the photographs, some experts may laugh, and feel funny, but i rquest to keep an eye on beginners and Modellers who are excellent in making models, but not advanced in Electronics..
         Here you can see the actual transistor, that we are going to use, in my palm, with three leads just under the black body.. you can also see a tab, with a hole, just top of the device, is used to fix the transistor on heat sink..
in second photograph, i placed it on my thumb nail, to show you the actual size of the device..!!

ESC-1.jpg
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« Reply #27 on: April 21, 2012, 09:55:36 PM »
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       Its must we must understand the specifications of any used devices and materials in our model making.. usage without a proper understanding of the specifications, lead us in to failure and dangers.. so some specifications and safe limits..

This transistor is simple and proven power transitor, goes in to N P N catagory.. this one can hold a 4 to 5 Amps continues current when used with a proper heat sink.. the idea of heat sink explained later..

This transistor has three leads as Emitter, Base, Collector.. if you hold or place the transistor like shown in photograph, the leads are will be like this.. in this position you can simply read the number of the transistor.. if so, the lead confguration will be like this..

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« Reply #28 on: April 21, 2012, 09:59:34 PM »
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      You do not worry about leads are what and why.. instead can follow easy steps once and will work.. i will explain in such an easy way to follow by taking lots of time and effort.. dont worry..

      Here is the second transistor, that we use in this same simple set up.. this one is a general purpose transistor, used in lots of proven circuits like voltage controllers, relay drivers, audio amplifiers etc.. this also goes in to N P N catagory.. see actual size, and the physical structure and can see the actual size over my nail..

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« Reply #29 on: April 21, 2012, 10:01:19 PM »
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Beautiful! This is what will help ALL of us who are using brushed motors. Thanks Roopesh.

Carry on........ Salute
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« Reply #30 on: April 21, 2012, 10:06:22 PM »
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       Here how to identify the leads..?  its all easy.. here you can see a simple toung, protuding from the main body.. this toung denotes the lead EMITTER..  and if you carefully watch the lead settings you can see the LEADS EMITTER and BASE are isolated from the body, but the COLLECTOR lead is directly fixed to the body..!! why..? yes the maximum heat dissipation will take place while the transistor conducts ( in working).. so the heavy heat will be disspated to atmosphere of the device.. so the COLLECTOR junction is directly joined to the metal casing of the transistor.. so, we can easily add the heat sink on the same junction to absorb any heat..  
      Here we can see the pin configuration of the transistor..

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« Reply #31 on: April 21, 2012, 10:19:45 PM »
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         VC Sir.. thanks for the grace.. and i am happy to know my humble efforts helps you.. and hope many Modellers will benify this by keeping the cost within and utilizing this.. so happy..
         Another major electronics components are we using a power diode and L E Ds.. all are simple and do not worry about the leads and connections.. without that i will guide you to make this ESC by close up photographs in detail..

         Here you can see the power diode.. see the actual size.. and you can buy any general purpose high ampere Diodes like this one.. this one is IN 5407.. and can buy anyone that holds 6 Amps.. this one is used as a protector, of the transistors, while motor shuts off instantly.. the back E M F ( a motor is a Generator also.. so when it rotates freely, this makes a current to backwards.. this current can damage any electronics devices used.. )  will be absorbed by this high Ampere Diode..

         Another one device is the L E D s.. ( L E D is the short form of Light Emitting Diode, is a type of electronic Diode, who emits visible light when conducts means , while current passes through it..)  you can see the actual L E D here, and can see two leads, is one is longer than the next.. there s a theory and science behind it.. leave it all.. here we are using it for indication of the Power on, and gain of the ESC.. leave all theories.. when connected.. it must light..thats all.. so, here we can see the two leads as one is to connect to battery + and the short lead is to battery -  please DO NOT CONNECT THE L E D DIRECTLY TO BATTERY.. INSTEAD MUST USE A 1 KILO OHMS RESISTOR IN POSITIVE LINE, OR ON THE LONG LEAD OF THE L E D.. IF NOT IT WILL BURN INSTANTLY..
so, at 12 volts we can use a 1Kilo Ohms 1/4 watt resistor to it and at 6 volts a 470 Ohms ( ONLY OHMS..not KILO OHMS), for a better working..



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« Reply #32 on: April 21, 2012, 10:27:30 PM »
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      As i mentioned earlier, that we are not going to use any complicated electronic circuits here, including a Micro Controller, how can we adjust the speed..? yes, its a must we have to keep all as easy, at this stage, thats why, we are going to use a micro servo to alter the speed variations.. so, we must need a device, the device must be driven by the servo.. its the potentio meters.. or known as the variable Resistors.. here you can see two types of variable resistors, as one is Sliding and the next is Rotary type.. both are good, but i prefer the Sliding because of the easy of installation.. this kind of variable resistors came in to two froms, are single,(MONO), and Compound (STEREO).. in single type you can see three leads and in compound are six.. for easy under standing i noted the leads as 1, 2, 3.. so both are same in function.. here we need tha variable resistor in 47 or 50 Kilo Ohms value..

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« Reply #33 on: April 21, 2012, 10:33:38 PM »
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      And as we are not using any complicated Electronic circuits, how can reverse the motor..? at this easy stage, we are going to use two simple types of switches.. one is i introduced you earlier on the first set up.. and the second one is the simple toggle switch.. this switch are small, but capable of carriyibg a decent 10 Amps at 24 Volt DC.. this switch is a DP DT, means Double Pole and Double throw.. more clearly, the switch contains two individual switches, and can goes ON and OFF in either directions.. or can switch on different loads on each end when switch handle moved from one side to other..

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« Reply #34 on: April 21, 2012, 10:53:15 PM »
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                 Here is the detailed description of the switch that we are going to use in this motor control set up, for reverse.. you can see a red line that i drawn.. this line seperates each switches in imagination.. then you can see two identical switches, and the similar poles that contains.. a C point can see on both sides.. this denotes the COMMON point.. and can also see two poles as 1 and two as 2.. these are poles when switch contact goes from to other.. i expalied hereonly for explanations .. dont worry about the connections..
Friends..MOM is too angry.. time to lunch and medicine.. will be back..

   

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« Reply #35 on: April 21, 2012, 11:39:24 PM »
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Yes, he is off for "lunch". Before you guys start sniggering about 'lunch at 11:30pm', check this out:

lunch
   [luhnch]
noun
1.
a light midday meal between breakfast and dinner; luncheon.
2.
any light meal or snack.
Huh?

source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/lunch
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« Reply #36 on: April 22, 2012, 12:26:03 AM »
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VC Sir.. thanks for the correction.. but when my MOM starts to shout.. nothing will come to brain.. Giggle so, i corrected it as "dinner" hope is correct..  Salute
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« Reply #37 on: April 22, 2012, 12:30:26 AM »
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 Grin Luckily, my Mom stays with me, I know what you mean. God bless them!
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« Reply #38 on: April 22, 2012, 01:03:06 AM »
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yes sure VC Sir.. thanks for the graceful words.. God may bless them  Salute
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« Reply #39 on: April 25, 2012, 05:04:28 PM »
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        We saw and examined all needed parts to make a simple but effective ESC for brushed motors.. here to retain the simplicity, we are using some electromechanical method, to achieve the reverse function.. so, we can do it in two ways.. will understand as we progress, thus can avoid lots of confusion once..  this simple ESC can made on a vero board, card board, plastic card, and anything that apropriate.. and can make without any PCB, makes it even more simple and compact.. so, we can simply add this device within a very little place, all around our crafts, like airplanes, boats,ships, hover crafts and lots more.. here we are starting the assembly procedures once..
        What you need as essential..?  yes, a good soldering iron, with three pin top, and make sure that the thirdth pin is surely Earthed..  some good quality soldering paste,(flux), good quality, solder wire.. a simple round head nose plier, a twizer, and a scrap or art knife.. thats all.. and yes if you have a multimeter will help you extensively, but not a must here as i will show you how can we check the connections without a multimeter.. this procedure also helps us to understand the load testing.. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #40 on: April 26, 2012, 11:24:22 AM »
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       time to make.. as keeping beginners and Modellers less advanced in electronics, we can make this one on a piece of foam board.. so will get a clear idea.. can also make on a vero board, (common PCB), but will be hard to trace and understand, while we progress.. so, here i am starting with a piece of foam board.. and you can see the simple diagram of the Darlington pair of the transistors.. this makes easy.. but it is not a need to stick to the circuits or theory, but will work all nicely, by keeping the assembly order once.. all simple..

      here the diagram..
and here you can see a little piece of foam board in my hand, in to 2X2 inch size.. this will consume a little extra space, but will be easy to understand the wiring.. and after that we will make this without any PCBs..

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« Reply #41 on: April 26, 2012, 11:39:56 AM »
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       i told you that the transistor will heat up when it starts to work..(conducts).. so it is essntial to cool it down in to a feasible level.. for this we have to use a heat sink on the transistor, that the heat sink must be within the criteria of loading.. means if you are going to add a big load to the ESC, you have to add a good big heat sink on it, or must cool the ESc with liquid or water or with air..heat sinks can be buy from electronics shops or can make from aluminum channels or can take from any old electronic devices like TV or tape recorder.. or from SMPS..here you can see the heat sink that purchased from an electronic shop for Rs 2/-..

       you can see the transistor seated in the heat sink nicely..

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« Reply #42 on: April 26, 2012, 11:53:28 AM »
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      because of the nature of the transistor, the collector is directly connect to the tab of the transistor.. that is why, the tab of the transistor will be the COLLECTOR, as to meat the need of heat transfer.. so, when we connect the transistor to battery, the taab of the transistor will be same of the battery positive .. B+..  so, if we connect the transistor directly to heat sink, the heat sink will be the B+... in such case, theres a chance of short circuit if any of the wire, or any of the part of the craft, may shorted.. to avoid this head ache, we must use an insulation kit, to our transistor heat sink combination at all the while.. so, for this we can simply can purchase the transistor insulation kit, or transistor isolation kit from any electronic shops.. this costs about Rs/5-... this will be either Mica sheet, or may be a new generation flexible asbestose insulator.. this also can scrap from many old electronics devices..

here you can see the transistor, it's insulator, and a special washer, that fits to the tab of the transistor, to avoid shorting the tab with heatsink..

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« Reply #43 on: April 26, 2012, 11:55:52 AM »
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      Place the insulator on heat sink, then fix the transistor to the heat sink, with specified screw set, as shown..

tight the screw nicely, while avoiding the over torque..

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« Reply #44 on: April 26, 2012, 11:58:28 AM »
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      Place the transistor, over the foam board, in a convenient place and mark the transistor leads..
make three holes with a point iron, or with a twist drill in small size..( .5mm almost..)

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« Reply #45 on: April 26, 2012, 12:00:58 PM »
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insert the transistor through the holes.. then can see the three leads protuding on other side..

ESC-10.jpg
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« Reply #46 on: April 26, 2012, 12:03:56 PM »
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     now, we have to add an other transistor to form the darlington pair.. for that, you can fix the second transistor like this.. please note the EMITTER lead..

make only two holes and insert the second transistor, while the BASE lead free from the holes as shown..

ESC-12.jpg
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« Reply #47 on: April 26, 2012, 12:06:36 PM »
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      its claer to see the BASE lead.. this lead is used to feed  or control the transistors while using as an ESC..
at back of the foam board, we can simply see all leads of two transistors.. note the specified leads as i mentioned..of the big first transistor..

ESC-14.jpg
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« Reply #48 on: April 26, 2012, 12:13:25 PM »
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       you can see the two leads from the little transistor is linked to the leads of the bigger transistor.. while keeping the lead configuration just solder it..  Thumbs Up

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« Reply #49 on: April 26, 2012, 06:35:46 PM »
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               after soldering the transistors as shown in the above photograph, our main job is completed.. means the making of the Darlington pair is over.. this time we done it over a piece of foam board.. so, sure it will take a little space to accomodate.. this same can do wothout any PCBs.. if so it will be much weightless, and also will be much convenient to place on crafts.. its far easy than we think.. and i prefer this boardless making as it is much small and easy of installation.. so, we can check the second option once.. so all you will find how easy it..
               By following easy steps once again, you can make this ESC within minutes.. and it drives needed motors well..  Thumbs Up
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« Reply #50 on: April 26, 2012, 06:48:40 PM »
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After this Darlington pair is completed, what do we do next?
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« Reply #51 on: April 26, 2012, 07:08:54 PM »
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VC Sir.. its too hard to upload fast.. when we finish the Darlington pair, the 80% of our work is done.. after this stage, we have only a little work of adding the potentiometer and and final wiring.. trying to upload..
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« Reply #52 on: April 26, 2012, 10:50:35 PM »
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              Up to now, we saw a simple pair of transistors as Darlington.. is capable of driving some smaller motors.. and look for a great powerful pair, that can haul a big load.. this pair is wired around the ever classic transistor TIP 3055.. you can also use 2N 3055 or similar, but will be much heavy and cumbersome.. will take lots of space.. but TIP 3055 is a great package is very weight less and thin.. and can fix to any surface because of its smaller size and flat bottom.. so check out..
               Here we are starting with one TIP 3055 and one SL 100..
fix the transistor over a good heat sink, with insulator..

ESC-17.jpg
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« Reply #53 on: April 26, 2012, 10:54:58 PM »
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        Now solder the smaller transistor, (SL100), as shown.. you can clearly see the all leads..
in close ups..

ESC-19.jpg
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« Reply #54 on: April 26, 2012, 11:02:01 PM »
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solder a good high density copper wire with RED insulation on the COLLECTOR leads of transistors.. this wire is the BATTERY +..
solder a good high density copper wire with YELLOW insulation on the EMITTER of TIP 3055... this wire is MOTOR +..

ESC-21.jpg
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« Reply #55 on: April 26, 2012, 11:07:14 PM »
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now take two equal lenghts of HD copper wire with BLACK insulation, and cut it half.. then rejoin the wire at center and solder it.. after soldering, this BLACK wire must be twisted on the RED and YELLOW wires as shown.. this BLACK wire is for BATTERY - and MOTOR -...

ESC-23.jpg
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« Reply #56 on: April 26, 2012, 11:12:20 PM »
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now solder a good electrolytic capacitor in between the EMITTER of the TIP 3055, and the BATTERY - wire as shown.. a 4700 micro Farad capacitor is best.. can use a small 1000 MFD.. make sure that the leads of the capacitor is short as possible..

ESC-25.jpg
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« Reply #57 on: April 26, 2012, 11:17:36 PM »
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solder three wires as you like, on the sliding potentiometer as shown.. if you purchase a dual one, you can simply avoid the next three terminals and can choose the needed three leads..
solder the center point of the potentiometer, to the BASE of the SL 100 transistor as shown..

ESC-27.jpg
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« Reply #58 on: April 26, 2012, 11:22:16 PM »
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never solder the center wire as wrong.. take a good care about this..
after that solder any of the extreme end of the potentio meter to the BATTERY -... as shown.. in the second photograph..

ESC-29.jpg
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« Reply #59 on: April 26, 2012, 11:28:21 PM »
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now we have a thirth wire from the potentiometer, here coloured as yellow.. solder this one to the COLLECTOR points of both transistors.. we can add 100 to 500 Ohms resistor in between the potentio meter and the COLLECTOR ( BATTERY +) lead but here it is not essntial..
now the basic ESC is ready for the test.. see how simple it is..

ESC-31.jpg
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« Reply #60 on: April 26, 2012, 11:36:35 PM »
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now connect the YELLOW and BLACK wire to the motor that you want to run..
if you want to change the direction of the motor, just change the motor wires.. and before going to connect BATTERY wire, make sure that the moving arm of the potentiometer, is closed at the BATTERY - point of the potentio meter.. if not the motor will start instantly while connecting the battery.. can inflict damage or injuries.. take care.. after making sure, just connect the battery wire to a battery source, as RED + and BLACK -.. 

ESC-33.jpg
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« Reply #61 on: April 26, 2012, 11:41:29 PM »
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        Now we can add any motor to the ESC.. make sure the heat sink is good while using big loads.. and if the load is too much, you can add and bridge a second TIP 3055 near to the main transistor.. or can add three for huge loads..
here you can see various motors under test..

ESC-35.jpg
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« Reply #62 on: April 26, 2012, 11:50:38 PM »
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the speed of the motor will change while the sliding resistor moves from one end to another.. we can change the up and down side of the speed by changing the two extreme wires on potentiometer.. now, we got the simple but effective ESC.. then how can we control the speed by a hobby radio..? and how can we achieve the reverse..? follows..

ESC-37.jpg
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« Reply #63 on: April 27, 2012, 12:19:37 AM »
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Roopesh sir,what should we call you  Huh?...a genius ?.. god gifted ? Gods gift to all modellers on rcindia ?...all of the above ?....ABSOLUTELY Clap... Thumbs Up ...words are not enough to describe the greatness we know as Mr. Roopesh Krishna sir... Hats Off
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« Reply #64 on: April 27, 2012, 12:35:45 AM »
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Dr Khannajee, now we are living in a graceful time of Modelling.. means we have ample of stuffs around us.. but when i started modelmaking years before, to me nothing was around.. and my radio was a self made crude one, but i controlled my craft nicely.. today we have the edge of 2.4 GHz.. still, the needed stuffs are expensive.. this keeps many modellers far from modelling.. so, here you can see how simple is to make an ESC..!!  we never used any electronic complications here.. still works fine.. we will exmine all things here, by step by step, as how to control the speed with radio, reverse, cooling stuffs.. watercooling all.. will works perfectly, and saves us a lots.. there is no amazements.. if you examine once you will find it all easy.. make crafts.. RCyit..many.. save lots.. while enjoying Rcying... Salute Thumbs Up
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« Reply #65 on: April 27, 2012, 12:42:29 AM »
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I'm all ears sir,following this topic very keenly with complete interest. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #66 on: April 27, 2012, 01:18:28 AM »
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 Salute follows..
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« Reply #67 on: April 27, 2012, 03:15:27 PM »
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« Reply #68 on: April 27, 2012, 07:53:01 PM »
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« Reply #69 on: April 27, 2012, 10:07:53 PM »
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  thank you all..
Up to here, we made the ESC with ease.. now we have to control thespeed and reverse with our radio.. it is so easy to do that.. as we are avoiding all electronic complication, i told you we can adopt the electromechanical method here.. so, at first we can go to control the throttle level.. for this we need only a micro servo..

           At first, make an appropriate hole, on the moving arm of the potentio meter.. with a twist drill.. the hole must be appropriate, to the push rod that we are going to use.. 
         Now take the micro servo, and fix the longest servo arm on it..

ESC-39.jpg
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« Reply #70 on: April 27, 2012, 10:13:51 PM »
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now time to fix the potentio meter over a piece of foam board.. we can fix this firmly over a metal or wooden surface, but i prefer the foam board because of it's flexible nature.. you can see the simple fixation here.. take the picture as a key.. its all easy..

ESC-42.jpg
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« Reply #71 on: April 27, 2012, 10:22:11 PM »
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         Fix the servo in such a way, that the arm of the servo, can slide easily.. as shown.. you can choose any convenient method to place the servo.. this arrangement can also be done directly on crafts..

ESC-44.jpg
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« Reply #72 on: April 27, 2012, 10:26:18 PM »
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           if we are looking for a permanent set up, we can simply fix the servo with two drops of industrial cyano glue, but if not can fix the servo with screws..
           our next step is to fix the drive rod.. here i used a brass rod, to avoid any rust and smooth working..

ESC-46.jpg
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« Reply #73 on: April 27, 2012, 10:44:53 PM »
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                Make sure the servo drive rod  is perfect.. for smooth  working.. slice a little piece of ball point refill..

ESC-48.jpg
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« Reply #74 on: April 27, 2012, 10:50:34 PM »
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insert the piece over the drive rod end.. drop a little glue between it.. secure it..

ESC-50.jpg
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« Reply #75 on: April 27, 2012, 11:00:14 PM »
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      Connect the servo, to the throttle stick channel of your Radio set.. make sure the movement is in correct direction, as we increase the throttle.. if it is reversed, we can simply reverse the channel by servo reverse switch.. make sure the travelling length of the drive rod is perfect.. if it is too high, you can replace the drive rod to inner position on servo.. or by radio EPA adjustments..  and if it is too low, can add a long servo arm, or can do with AT of the radio..
      Now the ESC is completed with radio set.. means at present we can control the speed variation with our radio set remotely.. in this stage, we can add this to any craft that need not a reverse.. then we can look to add the reverse function.. Thumbs Up

ESC-52.jpg
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« Reply #76 on: April 29, 2012, 05:33:04 PM »
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          Up to here we made the electromechanical ESC for brushed motors in an esay way.. now it is working.. now we can add it to our crafts one need not reverse.. so, from here we can make a simple set up for reverse.. a simple set up..? yes again, we are not going to add any complications.. so, here at beginning i cleary mentioned you all about two types of switches.. yes the first one is the simple micro switch, and second one is the mighty toggle switch.. at first we are going to add the simplest mode of reverse with micro switch.. the wsitch is controlled by the same servo, one drives the potentiometer, by the command from the TX..so, at first we can go for it.. this mode is simple.. but with a great drawback.. means, the reverse is controlled by the battery pack itself.. so, we cant adjust the speed in reverse.. to reduce speed in reverse, we can tap the half battery voltage, by splitting the battery, or by adding some heavy duty resistors.. go for a look..
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« Reply #77 on: May 05, 2012, 12:41:38 PM »
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             this one is simple reverse stage.. on this stage, we can add the existing battery for this purpose.. but the dis advantage will be, is the sudden on of the motor in reverse.. but can tap the battery as half, to reduce the motor thuds.. or can add a simple 10 watt 10 Ohms resistor in series with motor..
             If we examine, about the potentio meter, we will find that there must be a free gap between the full length of the potentio meter and the stop point.. means motor starts to run only when the potentio meter reaches a particular level towards high throttle.. so, we got a gap with the arm of the potentio meter.. so, this gap can be simply utilized for adding the reverse switch.. this arrangements saves one additional servo, intended for reversing, in the next step..  so, here we are adding the simple reverse switch.. this will be most usefull in boats, ships, and land based models, as it is an essential in RCying.. the speed of the reverse can be controlled by adding some diodes in line, or by adding some high watt resistors.. can go for a check..
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« Reply #78 on: May 09, 2012, 09:33:05 AM »
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to add the simple reverse switching, we need two micro switches.. make sure the switches are in good quality..we can use a micro switch with two poles, ( with 6 leads, 3 each side,), but here i am using two switches glued to gather because of non availabilty of combination switch.. can see two switches are glued togather.. make sure the control leaves are in same position..

ESC-54.jpg
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« Reply #79 on: May 09, 2012, 09:39:25 AM »
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we can see the perfect glueing.. and can see the two poles and 6 leads..
now sand the arms a little, and glue a washer over it.. this makes two identical switch as one.. then one press actuates both, simultaneously..

ESC-56.jpg
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« Reply #80 on: May 09, 2012, 09:46:15 AM »
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the switch is ready.. now we have to fix it in such a way, that operated by the same servo, one drives the potentiometer.. you can fix it according to your set up, and here you can see how simple it is.. we know there must be a dead point, on the potentio meter, as it comes down.. in this region, motor stops instantly.. then we have a little space again, on same potentio meter, that gap can be utilized for reversing..

ESC-58.jpg
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« Reply #81 on: May 09, 2012, 09:53:38 AM »
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can see a piece of foam board, over the arm, to drive the switch nicely.. and make sure the switch is depressed fully when the control arm reaches the proportioned end..

time to connect.. take two wires, coming from ESC as out to motor.. we were using Yellow, and Black wires for this.. so, solder the two wires on the NC contacts of the switch..

ESC-60.jpg
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« Reply #82 on: May 09, 2012, 10:26:43 AM »
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now we have two C terminals as Contact.. solder two idendical wires to the C poles as shown.. these wires will lead to motors.. as in FWD direction.. when switch is not pressed, the Contact, passes through the NC ( Normally Closed, or Normally Contact), pole, drives the motor in one direction..

ESC-62.jpg
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« Reply #83 on: May 09, 2012, 10:35:29 AM »
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now can see the two wires leading to the heavy duty motor.. in this time the motor will work in one direction..
and solder one red and one black wire, in opposite to the phase of the first wire set.. note the polarity is reversed here...

ESC-64.jpg
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« Reply #84 on: May 09, 2012, 10:47:58 AM »
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now connect thw two new Red and Black wires, to a second battery, for an example, you can see two identical batteries here, in 6 volts, and conected in series for FWD motor control.. and the new set wire are connected to one of the battery, as 6 volts for reverse.. so, when the switch activated by the servo, the motor will start to run in reverse..
this circuit configuration is simple and robust.. this kind of set ups are very appropriate for big boats and big ships, as a permanent ESC control.. can also be used in big scale land based vehicles..
because of the simplicity, the circuit have a little flaw.. is, it is not possible to control reverse in a proportional manner.. so, we can add a proportional control in FWD and REV.. for this we need an additional servo, and a DPDT toggle switch..

ESC-66.jpg
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« Reply #85 on: May 09, 2012, 11:06:47 AM »
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here is the test video..
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« Reply #86 on: May 09, 2012, 03:12:49 PM »
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up to here we worked on ordinary transistors.. now we have a little more nice option by making same electromechanical ESC, by a MOSFET.. the MOSFET is poered by a PWM ( Pulse Width Modulation ) circuit, acts as a chopper circuit, is far better than an ordinary circuit.. this MOSFET can handle up to 6 to 10 times current, while half in size of the used transistor.. so, here at first we must need a good stable PWM generator to attain a PWM signal to drive the MOSFET.. this circuit is wired around the famous IC NE 555.. from here we need some knowledge in Electronics, especially wiring a PCB, and component laying.. Thumbs Up
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« Reply #87 on: October 19, 2012, 11:29:07 AM »
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 Bow :bow:very nice sir Bow Bow
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